Science in the Context of Society through QR Code in Problem Based Learning


  • David Devraj Kumar Florida Atlantic University, College of Education, Florida.
  • Susanne I. Lapp Florida Atlantic University, College of Education, Florida.


QR Code, Problem Based Learning, Science in Society, Mentor


Science education in the context of societal applications through QR code in problem-based learning (PBL) is addressed in this paper. An example from an elementary classroom where the students received mentoring by their high school peers to develop QR codes involving the Florida Everglades is presented. Through meaningful guidance it is possible to enhance elementary students knowledge of science in society and awaken their curiosity of science using QR code embedded problem-based learning.


Kumar, D. D. & Chubin, D. E. 2000. Science, technology, and society: A sourcebook on research and practice. New York; Plenum Publishers.

Lapp, S.I. & Ariza, E.W. 2018. Technology and ELLs in Middle School. In Liontas, J. (Ed.), The TESOL Enclycopedia of English Language Teaching. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Retrieved from DOI:10.1002/9781118784235.eelt067.

Vahlberg, V. 2010. Fitting into their lives: A survey of three studies about youth media usage. Retrieved from 2013/09/NIE_Fitting_into_their_lives.pdf.

Roberts, D. F., Foehr, U. G., & Rideout, V. J. 2005. Generation M: Media in the lives of 8–18 year-olds. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.

Lapp, S.I. & Draginoff, A.C. 2017. Establishing learning opportunities for children with mobile apps. Paper presented at the 2017 Association of Ubiquitous Collaboration Educators International (AUCEi) Annual Meeting and Conference. Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.

Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. 1997. The Jasper Project: Lessons in Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment, and Professional Development, 1st ed. Mahwah: Erlbaum.

Kumar. D. D. & Sherwood, R. D. 2007. Effect of a problem based simulation on the conceptual understanding of undergraduate science education students. Journal of Science Education and Technology 16(3), 239-246.

Kumar, D. D. 2015. A study of web based anchors in nanotechnology for problem-based science learning. Journal of Nano Education 7(1), 58-64.

Kumar, D. D. & Yurick, K. A. 2018. Web-assisted problem-based learning in nanotechnology and quality of student learning in elementary science. Journal of Materials Science Education 40(1-2), 29-58.

Abdul Rabu, S.N., Hussin, H., & Bervell, B. 2019. Education and Information Technologies 24, 359.

Rouillard, J. 2008. Contextual QR codes, Proc. -3rd Int. Multi-Conf. Comput. Glob. Inf. Technol. ICCGI 2008 Conjunction with ComP2P 2008 1st Int. Work. Comput. P2P Networks Theory Practice, 50–55.

Pillai, A. E., Prakash, D., Al-Marhoobi, N. A., & Shrivastava, M. 2017. Application of QR codes in tourism industry: A review of literature. International Journal of Computer Technology & Applications 8(6), 678–687.

Trew, J. 2012. New 'nano-code' could help fight banknote forgery by embedding invisible QR-style. Retrieved from ciphers

Rivers, D. 2009. Utilizing the quick response (QR) code within a Japanese EFL environment. JALTCALL Journal 5(2), 15–28.

Yusof, S., Goolamally, N., Latif, L. A., & Fadzil, M. 2012. Using QR codes in enhancing learning in elementary statistics. In 12th international conference of information (ICI12), 12–13 December 2012, Kuala Lumpur, 312–321.

Darling-Hammond, L. 2011. The mess we are in. Retrieved from

Chen, N., Teng, D., & Lee, C. 2010. Augmenting paper-based reading activities with mobile technology to enhance reading comprehension. Proceedings of the 6th IEEE international conference on wireless, mobile, and ubiquitous Technologies in Education, 201- 203. Retrieved from

Crompton, H., LaFrance, J. & van’t Hoof, M. 2012. QR codes 101. Learning & Leading with Technology 39(8), 22–23.

Robertson, C. & Green, T. 2012. Scanning the potential for using QR codes in the classroom. Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning 56(2), 11–12.

Pérez-Sanagustín, M., Parra, D., Verdugo, R., García-Galleguillos, G., & Nussbaum, M. 2016. UsingQRcodes to increase user engagement in museum-like spaces. Computers in Human Behavior 60, 73–85.

Gallagher, S. A. & Gallagher, J. J. 2013. Using Problem-Based Learning to explore unseen academic potential. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning 7, 111-131. Available at: 5015.1322.